Italy's Volcanoes: The Cradle of Volcanology

Etna Decade Volcano, Italy
Eruption update:
21-26 June 2000
All times are local (GMT+2 h)

Etna Home

Archived Etna news

5-14 June 2000

31 May to 4 June 2000

23-29 May 2000

17-20 May 2000

5-16 May 2000

26-27 April 2000

14-22 April 2000

30 March to 9 April 2000

16-27 March 2000

28 February to 14 March 2000

18-26 February 2000

13-16 February 2000

7-12 February 2000

1-6 February 2000

18-29 January 2000

27 December 1999 to 12 January 2000

9-21 December 1999

2-12 November 1999

27-28 October 1999

20-21 October 1999

7-18 October 1999

27 September to 5 October 1999

10-21 September 1999

24-28 July 1999

1-12 July 1999

20-28 June 1999

11 June 1999

4 June 1999

20 May 1999

13 May 1999

April 1999

11-31 March 1999

1-10 March 1999

February 1999

January 1999

December 1998

November 1998

October 1998

September 1998

August 1998

1-15 July 1998

June 1998

May 1998

March-April 1998

February 1998

January 1998

December 1997

May-November 1997


A rare photograph of the SE Crater
paroxysm of 1 April 2000

Photo by Urs and Annemarie Emch, Switzerland

1 April 2000

This unique photo of the SE Crater erupting on 1 April 2000 was kindly submitted by Urs and Annemarie Emch from Liebefeld, Switzerland. The event occurred during poor weather conditions; nonetheless this photo, which was taken from Torre del Filosofo, shows three lava fountains jetting from vents on the S flank of the SE Crater cone and from the summit vent. A bluish gas veil rises from a lava flow extending from the lowest vent (the "Sudestino" cone) to the SE. According to the eyewitnesses, the activity started at about 1000 h at the Sudestino and then extended upwards to the summit vent across the fissure on the S flank of the cone. This paroxysm lasted about 1 hour.

Do you plan to visit Etna in the near future?
Check the
weather forecasts for the Etnean area!

NEW: Excursions to the Etna area,
read more here!

The Etna telecamera is maintained by the "Sistema Poseidon" and there is no relationship of any kind with this site and its author. The Poseidon web site is in Italian, and the link to the telecamera is changed frequently, so that it is not indicated here (click on "Etna live cam" on the Poseidon home page). Please note also that all information provided on the present page (and the archived Etna news pages) is informal, based on personal observations, and is not intended to substitute, or compete with, the news bulletins now issued regularly at the Poseidon web site.

WARNING: Access to the summit area is VERY DANGEROUS. Violent eruptive episodes are occurring every few days at the Southeast Crater, and heavy showers of tephra (including clasts tens of centimeters in diameter) may occur up to several kilometers away. Lava may also arrive rapidly at up to 1.5 km of distance from the crater on the plain between Torre del Filosofo, Monte Frumento Supino, and the summit crater cones. The Torre del Filosofo area, which is familiar to many excursionists, is presently not a safe place at all. Tourists are presently not allowed to go beyond 2700 m elevation, and they should make excursions only with the mountain guides. Besides this, weather conditions are often unstable. Strong wind, snow or rain and clouds are occuring frequently in the summit area, even during the summer, and one can get easily lost. The mountain guides can be contacted at the cable car (near the Rifugio Sapienza) on the southern side of Etna, or (during the summer) at the hotel "Le Betulle" at Piano Provenzana, on the northern side.

Simultaneous eruption at the NE Crater and the SE Crater, 15 May 2000
Photo by Angelo Nicotra, Catania

15 May 2000

There are probably very few photos existing of the NE Crater and the SE Crater erupting simultaneously. Here's one, taken on the early morning of 15 May from Piano delle Concazze (at about 2600 m elevation on the NE flank of Etna), when Strombolian activity occurred at the NE Crater (right) and a small lava flow was extruded from the eruptive fissure on the N flank of the SE Crater cone. That crater produced a paroxysmal eruptive episode a few hours later, and yet another on the late evening of 15 May. This photo was taken by Angelo Nicotra who works at Piano Provenzana, a privileged position to see eruptive activity at the summit craters



26 June 2000 update. The following paragraphs have the detailed description of the latest paroxysm at the SE Crater, on the late evening of 24 June. The event was unusually well documented due to the presence of numerous observers in various places of the mountain: Boris Behncke and David Bryant at the Pizzi Deneri on the upper NNE flank (about 3 km from the SE Crater), Marco Fulle at Torre del Filosofo (about 1 km S of the SE Crater) and Giuseppe Scarpinati at Monte Zoccolaro on the SE flank (about 5 km from the SE Crater). Behncke and Bryant arrived at their observation spot at about 1800 h, while Fulle had been at Torre del Filosofo since earlier that day, and Scarpinati reached his observation post at about 2300 h.
According to mountain guides, slow lava effusion began from the lowest vent on the eruptive fissure on the N flank of the SE Crater cone on the morning of 24 June, sometime after 0800 h. A small lava flow began to extend eastwards, reaching a length of a few hundred meters during the following hours. When Behncke and Bryant drove through the villages of Milo and Fornazzo during the early afternoon, a steaming streak was distinctly visible extending down the steep slope below the N flank of the SE Crater cone, and it became clear to them that the crater had once more entered the buildup phase towards another paroxysm. After obtaining more information from the mountain guides at Piano Provenzana, who had observed the effusive activity from the Pizzi Deneri (a cluster of peaks on the highest part of the "Serra delle Concazze, the N rim of the Valle del Bove) a few hours earlier, they decided to climb to the rim of the Valle del Bove to observe the evolution of the activity. At about 1700 h they arrived at the crest of the rim above the 1928 eruptive fissure, but the view was seriously obstructed by a dense plume of gas, which came from the NE Crater and the Bocca Nuova, and which was pushed down into the Valle del Bove by a very strong wind, along with weather clouds. Climbing westwards on the crest of the rim, towards the Pizzi Deneri, they gradually obtained better views, as lighting conditions improved, and a brightly incandescent ribbon became visible through gaps in the gas plume. By 1800 h, when Behncke and Bryant reached the easternmost peak of the Pizzi Deneri, the lava flow had already extended about 1 km from its source vent, flowing on the steep slope towards the Valle del Bove. The flow was being fed vigorously, and a dense gas plume was issuing forcefully from the effusive vent on the lower N flank of the SE Crater cone. Every now and then the summit of the cone became visible, and it could be seen that the summit vent was filled with gas, while no activity of any kind was visible along the upper part of the fissure on the N flank of the cone.
As darkness began to fall, visibility improved steadily, and at the same time the lava flow rapidly advanced downslope. The activity was still completely quiet and non-explosive, there was no spattering at the active vent, and no eruption noise could be heard, although low level noise would probably have been masked by the very strong wind blowing at the observation site.
From the south the effusive activity became evident as darkness fell; a very bright glow was visible behind the SE Crater cone, but there was a complete absence of activity at the summit vent, except profuse gas emission.
By 2200 h the lava flow had doubled in length, its front being about 2 km from the source vent, and advancing at high speed on a steep slope a few hundred meters above the floor of the Valle del Bove. Visibility was now excellent, although the powerful wind continued to push gas emitted from the NE Crater across the Valle del Leone (a depression lying to the NW of the Valle del Bove, between the Pizzi Deneri and the summit cone complex). The active lava flow was very narrow in its uppermost part, where it flowed on the steep lower flank of the SE Crater cone, but widened and braided at its base. In its lower part the flow consisted of two or three branches racing towards the Valle del Bove, and overtaking each other alternatingly. Large blocks of bright yellow incandescent lava were seen floating on the flowing lava in the upper part of its course; when coming down through the channel immediatey below the effusive vent, these blocks moved at a speed of 30 m per second but slowed to about half that velocity at the base of the steep flank of the cone. Some blocks foundered at the slope break, others turned over several times and then continued to float on the flow surface.

A small tornado on the lava flow from the SE Crater paroxysm, 24 June 2000
Photo captured from video taken by David Bryant

24 June 2000

Sometime before the eruptive episode of the SE Crater on the evening of 24 June reached its paroxysmal phase, a small tornado developed on the lower part of the rapidly advancing lava flow that was emitted from the crater for many hours before the paroxysmal phase. This image has been captured from video recorded by David Bryant; the image has been contrast enhanced to make more features visible. The lights of Catania can be seen in the upper left corner of the image

Still there was no spattering at the source vent, which remained the only site of eruptive activity, and no sound except the roaring of the wind could be heard. A small glowing spot - probably a high temperature fumarole - was seen on the E rim of the summit vent of the SE Crater, but otherwise there was no visible activity except at the effusive vent. There was no glow at the NE Crater, although its gas plume was at times ejected much more forcefully, and at least one gas ring was observed to be emitted from that crater, while smaller gas rings were near continuously produced by the Bocca Nuova. These rings were illuminated by the yellow-orange glow of the lava flow, which also lighted the entire upper part of the volcano on its E side. Behncke and Bryant were able to move around at their observation post without using torches.
At about 2300 h things began to evolve. Behncke and Bryant had built a makeshift shelter of rocks and pieces of an abandoned seismic station (which obviously had been vandalized some time ago) to protect themselves and their equipment (film and still cameras) from the wind, which often carried centimeter sized pieces of rock with it. Every now and then rumbling and roaring noises became audible above the wind noise, even though they were not accompanied by any visible changes in the activity. The roaring noise became stronger and more continuous, and at about 2310 h it attained a crashing character, which was immediately followed by a dramatic increase in the effusion rate at the active vent; lava overflowed on both sides of the flow channel immediately below the effusive vent, and a surge of very brightly incandescent lava spilled downslope on top of the still moving, earlier lava.
For the next 20 minutes the noise level increased steadily as did the effusion rate, yet there was no explosive activity at the effusive vent, and no eruptive activity occurred elsewhere.
At about 2325 the noise of degassing once more increased and became quite spectacular, and this was finally accompanied by the rapid uprise of an ash column from somewhere in the upper part of the eruptive fissure on the N flank of the SE Crater cone. From Torre del Filosofo, Marco Fulle could well observe that at this time the summit vent was still inactive. The ash emissions were accompanied by jets of thousands of incandescent lapilli - not bombs or any other large clasts, just small lapilli. But now things evolved at amazing speed. About 60 seconds after the first ash puff, a huge lava fountain was seen shooting up from the summit vent, and in the same moment the lowest vent on the eruptive fissure, which previously had emitted the lava flow, began to eject a lava fountain at an almost horizontal angle towards NE, in the direction of Behncke's and Bryant's observation post. This fountain, however, was quite small, and bombs did not fall farther than 200-300 m from the vent. Just when Behncke and Bryant were still captured by this awesome sight, more fountains roared up from numerous vents along the entire length of the eruptive fissure, and five or six tongues of lava appeared on the W side of the eruptive fissure and very rapidly spilled downslope, towards the Valle del Leone.
Meanwhile the lava fountain at the summit vent continued to grow vertically. The fountain consisted of pulses following each other in rapid succession, and each rose higher than its predecessor, until the fountain roared to about 1000 m above the summit of the cone. Myriads of glowing bombs and scoriae were seen rising and falling in an incredibly turbulent manner, and within one or two minutes the entire cone was covered by incandescent material. At some of the vents on the eruptive fissure on the N flank of the cone, lava fountaining alternated with emission of black plumes of ash. The lowest vent no longer produced an inclined jet of lava, but the lava in this vent was now splashing and exploding. The main lava flow, on the E side of the cone, had increased enormously, and a voluminous surge of fresh lava raced downslope on top of the earlier lava, which was still advancing rapidly towards the floor of the Valle del Bove.
At the height of the paroxysm, a vent opened high on the S flank of the SE Crater cone, in the same place where small lava fountains had occurred during the most recent paroxysms, and a small volume of lava was emitted there, forming a flow that split into two branches at the base of the cone. One of these branches flowed W while the other took a more southwesterly course, in the direction of the 1971 "Observatory" cone.
At about 2340 h, the entire scene was shrouded in dense gas and falling pyroclastics, so that only the lowermost of the lava fountains on the eruptive fissure could be seen, but after some time it became evident that the main lava fountain was rapidly dying out. Strangely enough, at the same time the noise level went up in an incredible manner. The air was filled with a tremendous roaring and thundering din, which went through numerous phases of waxing and waning. The noise of the wind seemed almost absent compared to that sound, although the wind had not the least diminished. The spectacle of sound eventually culminated with a profound and extremely loud roar and a series of cannon shot-like detonations, caused by supersonic gas jets in the conduit where the degassing magma was subsiding. This phase of activity was accompanied by the forceful emissions of a very dense column of black ash, which rose more than 1 km high. The detonations were heard overe a vast area in E Sicily, causing some apprehension among people living in villages on the volcano's slopes, who had already been impressed by the violence of the lava fountains and the unusually long lava flow on the E flank.
At his observation point on Monte Zoccolaro Giuseppe Scarpinati found himself under a rain of scoriae, some of walnut size, which forced him to retreat under a tree. The view from there of the erupting crater was hampered by the gas and tephra plume, but the advancing main lava flow could be seen better from there than from anywhere else. The front had now reached the bottom of the Valle del Bove at the base of its steep W slope, in an area between the cinder cones of the Monti Centenari (1852-1853 eruption) and Monte Lepre, almost 3 km from the SE Crater. On the flat ground the lava began to fan out, but still it advanced at a speed of about 0.5 m per second. The flow front was 5-10 m thick with many large incandescent boulders rolling from its sides and to quite some distance away from the flow, only to be buried by the advancing flow front a few seconds later.
After the impressive detonations, the noise level rapidly declined, and the wind noise again became dominant at the Pizzi Deneri where Behncke and Bryant were just beginning to realize what had happened during the previous 15 minutes. Small lava fountains were still playing intermittently at several vents in the lowest part of the eruptive fissure, but feeding of the lava flows towards the Valle del Leone had stopped, and also the main lava flow towards the Valle del Bove received less and less fresh lava. The 64th paroxysmal eruptive episode at the SE Crater in 5 months was over.
Just as the eruptive activity waned, thousands of inhabitants of the Etna region who had seen the lava fountains and the long lava flow jumped into their cars, called their friends and neighbors on their cell phones and began to speed towards the Rifugio Citelli on the NE flank, and towards the Monte Zoccolaro area on the SE flank. More and more cars were seen racing up the "Mareneve" road which leads from Fornazzo to the Rifugio Citelli and further on to Piano Provenzana, and up the road leading from Zafferana to Monte Zoccolaro, and on to the Rifugio Sapienza. Within about 20 minutes these roads were completely jammed, and the situation became even worse as many cars who had arrived earlier began to return downslope when people recognized that the eruption was over, and the lava flow could not be seen from the Rifugio Citelli. Nonetheless many people remained to stay and chat with others in a strange outdoor party atmosphere. Cars were still driving up towards the mountain at about 0200 h on 25 June, although by that time the lava flow was cooling rapidly and thus lost incandescence.
No further eruptive activity occurred at the summit craters since that paroxysm, but numerous gas rings were emitted from the Bocca Nuova.
A few summarizing remarks concerning the 24 June paroxysm should be mde here. First, this event came after the longest period of repose between two paroxysms that has been recorded in the current series of such events. Some people had already speculated that this spectacular phase of activity at the SE Crater, initiated on 26 January, had finally come to an end. Surely this type of activity will not go on forever; yet the paroxysm of 24 June has shown that the SE Crater is still vigorously alive. Yet this paroxysm was unusually short, with a full duration of 17 minutes, as recorded by Fulle from Torre del Filosofo. And although it was of stunning violence, the tephra falls, which were concentrated in a narrow sector on the SE flank, were less extensive than during many earlier paroxysms. At Zafferana, which lies in the center of the fallout sector, the deposit was less than 1 cm thick, and the largest clasts were only 1 cm in diameter. The area subjected to falls of large bombs was restricted to the immediate vicinity of the SE Crater cone - which itself was entirely covered with incandescent pyroclastics. Observers at Torre del Filosofo initially feared that bombs might fall there, as has occurred on many occasions in the past few months, but the nearest impacts on 24 June were hundreds of meters away.
It remains an open question what causes the sudden transition from quiet effusive activity to the paroxysmal phases of high lava fountaining. One hypothesis is that the effusive activity represents the extrusion of degassed magma from the upper part of the conduit as fresh, gas-rich magma pushes it from below once a hypothetical storage area below the crater is recharged with fresh magma to a critical value. The quantity of degassed magma above the deeper gas-rich magma prevents the decompression of the latter and the growth of gas bubbles for some time, but once enough degassed magma has been evacuated from the top of the magma column, the gas-rich magma begins to foam in a manner very similar to a bottle of champaign that has been shaken and then is uncorked. This occurs in a stunningly rapid manner during many paroxysms, although in some cases - like on 8 and 14 June - the transition has been more gradual, with Strombolian bursts preceding the phase of vigorous lava fountaining.
The sudden onset of lava fountaining in many paroxysms may furthermore be triggered by some very minor rifting along the eruptive fissure that cuts the cone from its lower N flank to the upper S flank, over a length of about 500 m. It may be assumed that each time (or nearly so) that magma rises into that fissure, it pushes its sides apart and thus causing slight extension over a limited area. The displacement of the E side of the cone - if its takes place in a very short period - would lead to the decompression of the magma in the conduit and thus trigger the phase of violent lava fountaining. Such a mechanism would also explain the observed broadening of the SE Crater cone in E-W direction over the past few months, which appears too great to be only caused by the accumulation of pyroclastics. Furthermore, if minor rifting occurs during all or most eruptive episodes, this would imply a high hazard for the area lying below the cone to the E, which is the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove. What if the E side of the cone - and the ground on which it is sitting - collapses, exposing a part of the conduit below the SE Crater? It is known that the W headwall of the Valle del Bove is structurally unstable, and it is also assumed that at least part of the Valle formed as a large block on the upper E flank underwent a gravity slide, similar to some degree to the giant rockslide on the N flank of Mount St Helens in May 1980.
These thoughts are not even to be called a hypothesis, but they should surely be tested by whatever means, because if they do hold a bit of truth, this would mean that a high risk exists in the area below the SE Crater to the E, and the sudden collapse of a part of the cone and the block lying below could trigger a much more violent explosive eruption than those observed in the summit area so far.

25 June 2000 update. After ten and a half days of quiet, the SE Crater finally produced its 64th paroxysmal eruptive episode in five months, and this was one of the most violent, although the main paroxysmal phase lasted only about 15 minutes. An unusually long lava flow was emitted for many hours before and during the paroxysm, this flow extended eastwards and reached the bottom of the Valle del Bove at about 1700 m elevation. This is the longest flow from the SE Crater of the current series of eruptive episodes.
Lava fountaining at the summit vent started immediately before 2330 h and continued until about 2345 h. Almost simultaneously the entire fissure on the N flank of the SE Crater cone became active. Very high lava fountains were ejected from the summit vent, at times reaching a height of 1000 m. The fountaining phase ended with very loud degassing and copious ash emission. In some moments the gas jet was expelled at supersonic velocity, producing ground-shaking detonations.
A more detailed description based on observations by Behncke, Bryant and Fulle will appear in this place later today.

21 June 2000 update. No further eruptive activity has occurred at the SE Crater since its latest paroxysmal eruptive episode on 14 June, although a new paroxysm may be expected within the next few days. When seen on 20 June during a summit visit made by Behncke, Bryant and others, the crater was completely quiet. A thin gas plume was emitted from a group of fumaroles located on the high E rim of the crater. The eruptive fissure that extends from the summit vent down the N flank of the SE Crater cone was quiet as well, with only very weak gas emission from two vents in the lower part of the fissure. The fissure was for the first time observed very well, it is curved towards NE in its lower part, and there are several small craters located on it. Numerous tongues of lava have extended from the fissure, building a curved ridge on the lower N flank of the cone.
Tephra from the latest two eruptive episodes of the SE Crater was present in two stretches extending to the NNW and to the N. The latter, more recent of these had stricken the area around the village of Solicchiata, damaging vineyards and fruit gardens. Scoria clasts up to 10 cm in diameter, ejected during the 14 June episode, were found along the dirt road leading to the summit area from Piano delle Concazze. Larger clasts (up to 50 cm in diameter) formed a continuous cover on the NE Crater.
During the visit, Behncke and his companions made observations at the NE Crater and at the Voragine, which had been visited infrequently in the past few months. The NE Crater had changed little since last visited by Behncke in late September 1999. The northern part of the crater floor consists of a flat terrace surrounded by a crescent shaped ledge. The southern half of the crater is occupied by a tremendous, bottomless pit with near vertical and in places overhanging walls. This pit was the site of extremely loud explosive activity, probably taking place at a depth of several hundred meters. Many explosions generated strong pressure waves that were painful to the ears when standing on the rim of the pit. The sound of falling rocks could be heard at depth, but no rock fragments were seen in the range of visibility. A pulsating gas plume rose from the pit, which contained small amounts of fine ash. No fresh looking bombs or scoriae were found around the pit, and it seems that the most recent ejecta on the NE Crater are the scoriae ejected on 14 June from the SE Crater.
The visit to the adjacent Voragine brought a surprise. This crater has been quiet since October 1999, with only weak fumarolic activity occurring from the bottom of a large pit formed in the W half of the crater on 4 September 1999. No changes had been seen during Behncke's last visit to the crater on 26 April. On 20 June, a new vent, which emitted gas at high pressure, was discovered on the SW wall of the 4 September 1999 pit. This vent was about 5 m in diameter. Gas emission was pulsating, and at times small explosions occurred, which, however, did not eject any rock fragments. Mountain guides at Piano Provenzana on the N flank of Etna reported that the vent had probably formed about two weeks earlier when an explosion reportedly ejected blocks of old rock. Some blocks up to 30 cm in diameter were found within a range of 30 m around the vent when Behncke approached it to a distance of about 20 m.
The opening of this new vent in the Voragine may be a forerunner of renewed eruptive activity from this crater in the near future. Similar events have heralded periods of heightened activity in the past two years; each culminated in very powerful explosive eruptive paroxysms (on 22 July 1998 and 4 September 1999). It will be interesting to see the behavior of that vent in the next few weeks. Fresh magma may be nearing the surface in the central conduit system, as indicated by an increase in the gas output at the summit craters in recent weeks.
Activity in the Bocca Nuova was observed directly only for a short moment while exiting the Voragine along the former "diaframma" (the wall that once separated that crater from the Bocca Nuova). As during the previous months, the activity consisted of intense gas emission from a vent in the E part of the Bocca Nuova, which generated beautifully shaped gas rings at intervals of a few minutes. The pit in the NW part of the crater was filled with gas, preventing a view of its interior, but no noise was heard from this pit.

Activity at the NE Crater
on 23 May 2000

Photos by Boris Behncke

23 May 2000
23 May 2000
23 May 2000

Ash emissions from the NE Crater on 23 May, photographed from Piano delle Concazze (photos above) and from the dirt road leading from there to the summit craters (photo at left). Note blackening of the snow below the crater in upper left photo

Several other web pages covering the recent and ongoing eruptions of the Southeast Crater are now available; these contain photos and movie clips of some of the most spectacular moments of that period.

Etna in 2000 - a list of all paroxysms at the SE Crater since 26 January and photos (this site)

Extremely spectacular video clips, taken by British cameraman and film maker David Bryant on 15 February 2000
At "Italy's Volcanoes" -
At Stromboli On-line

An interview with Boris Behncke, made in late February 2000 by a BBC team and a video clip (RealPlayer)

Photos of the eruptive activity, 15-23 February 2000, by Tom Pfeiffer (University of Arhus, Denmark)

Photos of an eruptive episode on 13 February 2000, posted on the web site of the Association Volcanologique Européenne, Paris, France

Photos of the 15 February 2000 paroxysm of the SE Crater, by Thorsten Boeckel, Germany

Photos by Marco Fulle, 15-20 February 2000, at Stromboli On-line - very high quality, as usual

Charles Rivière's Etna home page, with many photos and video clips (the most recent of the paroxysm of 5 May 2000), frequent updates, and other, highly interesting items (in French and English)

visitors counted since 12 February 1999
This page received 4362 hits during the week of 24-30 October 1999. 4430 hits were counted the week after.

Visitor statistics in February-May 2000:
01-05 February: 2189 (438 per day)
26 March-1 April: 8205 (1172 per day!)
06-12 February: 4170 (596 per day)
3-9 April: 6046 (864 per day)
13-19 February: 6498 (928 per day)
10-16 April: 5363 (766 per day)
20-26 February: 4988 (712 per day)
17-23 April: 4827 (689 per day)
27 February-04 March: 5327 (767 per day)
24-30 April: 4916 (702 per day)
05-11 March: 4103 (586 per day)
1-7 May: 5679 (811 per day)
12-18 March: 3942 (563 per day)
8-14 May: 6436 (919 per day)
19-25 March: 6992 (999 per day)
15-21 May: 6573 (939 per day)

FastCounter by LinkExchange

Copyright © Boris Behncke, "Italy's Volcanoes: The Cradle of Volcanology"

Yes, there's an ad on this page. This is related to a counter system I use to obtain web statistics and furthermore it's there to let me receive a minor economic input for this site which has become more and more extensive, and still work on this site is being done by myself exclusively (except taking some of the photos). I hope no one is offended by this commercial bit, but rather click on the banner to help me keep the site alive.

Page set up on 27 May 1997, last modified on 28 June 2000
Hosted by VolcanoDiscovery